Our work “PrefetchML: a Framework for Prefetching and Caching Models” has been recently accepted at MoDELS2016. This article focuses on adding prefetching and caching techniques defined at the metamodel level to model persistence frameworks in order to speed-up element accesses and query computation. An extended version of the work has also been published at Sosym in 2019: Advanced prefetching and caching of models with PrefetchML. Softw. Syst. Model. 18(3): 1773-1794 (2019), you can also read this free copy.

Prefetching and caching are well-known techniques integrated into database engines and file systems in order to speed-up data access. They have been studied for decades and have proven their efficiency to improve the performance of I/O intensive applications. Existing solutions do not fit well with scalable model persistence frameworks because the prefetcher operates at the data level, ignoring potential optimizations based on the information available at the metamodel level. Furthermore,  prefetching components are common in relational databases but typically missing  (or rather limited) in NoSQL databases, a common option for model storage nowadays.

To overcome this situation we introduce the PrefetchML framework, that provides a language and execution environment to help designers to define prefetching/caching plans according to specific modeling scenario (for example model-to-model transformation, model queries, or interactive edition). Prefetching/caching rules are executed in the background and cached elements are transparently accessed by the modeling framework when they are available.

The main contributions of the paper are:

  • The definition of a DSL that allows defining prefetching and caching rules at the metamodel level, regardless the persistence solution used
  • An implementation integrated into EMF that allows executing prefetching and caching rules on every EMF-compatible persistence framework.
  • An implementation tailored to NeoEMF/Graph that takes advantage of the embedded graph database to enhance the throughput of prefetching
  • An evaluation of PrefetchML showing the benefits of applying prefetching and caching techniques on top of model persistence frameworks

You can read the entire article here, check the slides or continue reading below. We’ll be happy to discuss in the comment on your opinion about this approach (is this useful? do you plan to use it to improve query execution of your applications? do you have some use cases that can benefit from PrefetchML?). The implementation of the prototype presented in the article is available on Github.

Introduction to Prefetching and Caching

Prefetching and caching are two well-known approaches to improve the performance of applications that rely intensively on I/O accesses.    Prefetching consists in bringing objects into memory before they are actually requested by the application to reduce performance issues due to the latency of I/O  accesses.   Fetched objects are then stored in memory to speed-up their  (possible) access later on.  In contrast, caching aims at speeding up access by keeping in-memory objects that have been already loaded.

Prefetching and caching have been part of database management systems and file systems for a long time and have proved their efficiency in several use cases  [23, 25].  P.  Cao et al.  [6] showed that integrating prefetching and caching strategies dramatically improves the performance of I/O- intensive applications.    In short,  prefetching mechanisms works by adding load instructions (according to prefetching rules  derived by  static [16] or execution trace analysis  [8]) into an existing program. Global policies, (e.g.,  LRU – least recently used,  MRU  – most recently used,  etc.)   control the cache contents.

Currently,  there is a lack of support for prefetching and caching at the model level.  Given that model-driven engineering  (MDE) is progressively adopted in the industry [15,21] such support is required to raise the scalability of MDE tools dealing with large models where storing, editing, transforming,  and querying operations are major issues  [19, 28]. These large models typically appear in various engineering fields, such as civil engineering [1], automotive industry [4], product lines [24], and in software maintenance and evolution tasks such as reverse engineering [5].

Existing approaches have proposed scalable model persistence frameworks on top of SQL and  NoSQL databases [11,13, 17, 22]. These frameworks use lazy-loading techniques to load into main memory those parts of the model that need to be accessed.   This helps to deal with large models that would otherwise not fit in memory but adds an execution time overhead due to the latency of I/O accesses to load model excerpts from the database, especially when executed in a distributed environment.

In this sense,  this paper proposes a new prefetching and caching framework for models.   We present  PrefetchML, a domain-specific language, and execution engine, to specify prefetching and caching policies and execute them at runtime in order to optimize model access operations. This DSL allows designers to customize the prefetching rules to the specific needs of model manipulation scenarios,  even providing several execution plans for different use cases. Our framework is built on top of the Eclipse  Modeling Framework  (EMF) infrastructure and therefore it is compatible with existing scalable model persistence approaches, regardless of whether those backends also offer some kind of internal prefetching mechanism. A special version tailored to the NeoEMF/Graph [3] engine is also provided for further performance improvements. The empirical evaluation of PrefetchML highlights the significant time benefits it achieves.

The paper is organized as follows:  Section 2 introduces further the background of prefetching and caching in the modeling ecosystem while Section 3 introduces the PrefetchML DSL.  Section  4 describes the framework infrastructure and its rule execution algorithm and  Section  5 introduces the editor that allows the designer to define prefetching and caching rules,  and the implementation of our tool and its integration with the EMF  environment.  Finally, Section  6 presents the benchmarks used to evaluate our prefetching tool and associated results.   Section 7 ends the paper by summarizing the key points and presenting our future work.

State of the art

Prefetching and  caching  techniques are  common  in relational  and  object  databases  [25] in order  to  improve  query computation  time.   Their  presence  in  NoSQL  databases  is much  more limited, which is problematic due to the increasing  popularity of this  type  of databases as  model  storage solution.  Moreover,  database-level prefetching and  caching strategies  do  not provide  fine-grained configuration  of the elements to load  according to a given  usage  scenario–such as  model-to-model  transformation,  interactive  editing,  or model  validation–and  are  often  strongly connected to the data representation, making  them hard  to evolve and  reuse. Scalable  modeling  frameworks  are  built  on  top  of relational  or NoSQL  databases to store  and  access  large  models [3, 11]. These  approaches are often based  on lazy-loading strategies to optimize memory  consumption by loading  only the accessed  objects  from the database. While  lazy-loading approaches have  proven  their efficiency in terms of memory consumption to load and query very large models [9,22], they perform  a lot  of fragmented  queries  on the  database, thus adding  a significant  execution  time  overhead.  For  the reasons described above,  these  frameworks cannot benefit from database prefetching solutions nor they implement their  own mechanism, with the partial exception of CDO [11] that provides  some basic  prefetching and  caching  capabilities.  For instance, CDO  is able to bring  into memory  several  objects of a list at the same time,  or loading nested/related elements up  to a given  depth.  Nevertheless, alternative  prefetching rules  cannot  be  defined  to adapt model  access  to different contexts nor  it is possible  to  define rules  with  complex prefetching conditions.

Hartmann et  al.  [14] propose  a  solution   to tackle  scalability issues  in  the  context of [email protected] by  splitting models into chunks  that are distributed across multiple nodes  in a cluster. A lazy-loading mechanism allows to virtually access the entire model  from each node.  However,  to the best  of our  knowledge  the proposed solution  does  not provide prefetching mechanism, which could improve the performance when  remote  chunks  are retrieved and  fetched among  nodes.

Optimization  of query  execution  has  also  been  targeted by  other  approaches not relying  on  prefetching but using a variety of other techniques.  EMF-IncQuery [4] is an  incremental evaluation engine  that computes graph  patterns over an EMF  model.  It relies on an adaptation of the RETE algorithm, and  results  of the queries  are  cached  and  incrementally updated using  the EMF  notification framework. While EMF-IncQuery can be seen as an efficient EMF cache, it  does  not aim  to provide  prefetching support,  and  cache management  cannot  be tuned  by the designer.   Hawk  [2] is a model  indexer  framework that provides  a query  API.  It stores  models  in an  index  and  allows  to query  them  using the EOL  [18] query  language. While  Hawk provides  an efficient backend-independent query language, it does not allow the definition of prefetching plans  for the indexed  models.

In summary, we believe  no existing  solution provides  the following  desired  characteristics of an  efficient and  configurable  prefetching and  caching  solution for models:

  1. Ability to define/execute  prefetching  rules  independently of the database backend.
  2. Ability to define/execute prefetching rules  transparently  from  the persistence framework layered  on  top of the database backend.
  3. A prefetching  language   expressive   enough   to  define rules  involving   conditions at  the type  and  instance level  (i.e.   loading  all  instances of a class  A that are linked  to a specific object of a class B).
  4. A context-dependent prefetching language allowing the definition of alternative prefetching and  caching  plans for specific use cases.
  5. A readable prefetching language enabling  designers  to easily tune the prefetching and  caching  rules.

In the following,  we present PrefetchML, our prefetching and  caching framework that tackles these challenges.

The PrefetchML DSL

PrefetchML is a DSL that describes  prefetching and  caching  rules  over models.  Rules  are triggered when an event satisfying  a  particular condition is received.   These  events can be the initial model loading,  an access to a specific model element, the  setting of a  value  or  the deletion  of a  model element. Event conditions are expressed  using OCL guards. Loading  instructions are  also defined  in OCL.  The  set  of elements to be  loaded  as  a response  to an  event  are  characterized by  means  of OCL  expressions   that navigate  the model and select the elements to fetch and store in the cache. Not only loading  requests can be defined,  the  language  also provides  an additional construct to control  the cache content by removing  cache elements when a certain event is received. Using  OCL  helps  us to be independent  of any  specific persistence  framework.

Prefetching and  caching  rules are organized in plans,  that are sets  of rules  that should  be used  together to optimize a specific usage scenario  for the model since different kinds  of model  accesses  may  require  different prefetching strategies. For example,  a good strategy for an interactive model browsing scenario  is to fetch and  cache the  containment structure of the model, whereas for a complex query execution scenario it is better to have a plan that fit the specific navigation path of the query.

Beyond a set of prefetching rules, each plan defines a cache that can be parametrized and a caching policy that manages the life-cycle of the  cached elements.

In what follows, we first introduce a running example and then we formalize the abstract and  concrete syntax of the PrefetchML  DSL.  Next  Section  will  introduce  how  these rules  are executed as part of the prefetching engine.

Running Example

In order to better illustrate the features of PrefetchML, we introduce a simple  example  model.  Figure  1 shows a small excerpt  of the Java metamodel provided by  MoDisco  [5].

A  Java  program is  described  in  terms   of  Packages   that are named  containers that group  ClassDeclarations through their ownedElements reference.  A ClassDeclaration contains a name  and a set of BodyDeclarations. BodyDeclarations are also named, and  its  visibility  is described by a single Modifier.  ClassDeclarations maintain a reference  to their CompilationUnit  (the  physical  file that stores  the source  code of the  class).   This  CompilationUnit  has  a name,  a list  of Comments, and  a list of imported ClassDeclarations (corresponding to the import clauses  in Java programs).

Excerpt of Java Metamodel

Figure 1: Excerpt of Java Metamodel


Listing  1 presents three sample  OCL  queries  that can be computed over an instance of the  previous  metamodel: the first  one returns the Package  elements that do not contain any  ClassDeclaration  through  their   ownedElements  reference.   The  second  one  returns from  a  given  ClassDeclaration  all its  contained BodyDeclarations that have  a private Modifier,  and  the third one returns from a ClassDeclaration a sequence  containing the  return  Comment elements in the ClassDeclarations that are imported by the CompilationUnit associated to the current element.


Listing 1: Sample OCL Query
context Package
def : isAnEmptyPackage : Boolean = self.ownedElements→isEmpty()context ClassDeclaration
def : privateBodyDeclarations : Sequence(BodyDeclaration) = self.bodyDeclarations→select(bd | bd.modifier = VisibilityKind::Private)

def : importedComments : Sequence(Comment) = self.compilationUnit.imports.compilationUnit.comments→select(c | c.content.contains(‘@return’)))

Abstract Syntax

This  section  describes  the main  concepts of PrefetchML focusing on the different types of rules it offers and how they can be combined  to create a complete prefetch specification.

Figure  2 depicts  the metamodel corresponding to the abstract syntax of the PrefetchML language. A PrefetchSpecification  is a top-level container that imports several  Meta- models.   These  metamodels represent the domain  on which prefetching and  caching  rules are described, and  are defined by their Unified  Resource Identifier (URI).


Figure 2: Prefetch Abstract Syntax Metamodel

Figure 2: Prefetch Abstract Syntax Metamodel

The  imported  Metamodels concepts  (classes,  references, attributes) are  used  in prefetching Plans, which  are  named entities that group rules that are applied  in a given execution context.   A  Plan   can  be  the  default  plan  to execute  in  a PrefetchSpecification if no execution information is provided. Each  Plan  contains a CacheStrategy, which represents the information  about  the cache  policy  the  prefetcher applies to keep  loaded  objects  into  memory.    Currently,  available cache  strategies are  LRUCache (Least  Recently  Used)  and MRUCache (Most  Recently Used).  These Caches  define two parameters: the maximum number of objects they can store (size ),  and  the  number of elements to free  when  it  is full (chunkSize ).  In addition, a CacheStrategy can contain a try-first OCL  expression. This  expression  is used to customize the default  cache  replacement  strategy:  it returns a set  of model elements that should  be removed  from the  cache if it is full, overriding the selected caching  policy.

Plans  also contain the core components of the PrefetchML language: PrefetchingRules that describe  tracked model events and  the loading  and  caching  instructions.  We  distinguish two kinds  of PrefetchingRules :

  • StartingRules that are  prefetching instructions  triggered  only when the prefetching plan  is loaded
  • ObjectRules that are triggered when an element satisfying a given condition is accessed, deleted, or updated.

ObjectRules can be categorized in three different types: Access  rules,  that are  triggered when  a particular model  element is accessed,  Set  rules that correspond to the setting of an  attribute or a reference,  and  Delete  rules,  that are  triggered  when  an  element  is deleted  or simply  removed  from its  parent.   When  to fire  the  trigger   is also  controlled  by the sourceContext class,  that represents the  type of the elements  that could  trigger  the rule.   This  is combined  with the sourceExpression (i.e.  the guard  for the event) to decide whether an object  matches the  rule.

All kinds  of PrefetchingRules contain a targetExpression, that represents the elements to load  when  the  rule  is triggered.  This  expression  is an OCLExpression that navigates the model and returns the elements to load and cache.  Note that if self  is used as the targetExpression of an AccessRule the framework will behave  as a standard cache,  keeping  in memory   the accessed  element  without  fetching   any  additional object.

It is also possible to define removeExpressions in PrefetchingRules.   When  a removeExpression is evaluated, the  prefetcher   marks  as  free  all  the elements it  returns from  its cache.   Each  removeExpression  is associated to a  remove-context  Class,  that represents the  context  of the OCL  expression.   remove expressions  can  be coupled  with  the try-first expression  contained in the CacheStrategy to tune  the default replacement policy of the  cache.

Concrete Syntax

We introduce now the  concrete syntax of the  PrefetchML language, which  is derived  from  the abstract syntax meta- model presented in Figure  2. Listing 2 presents the grammar of the PrefetchML language  expressed  using  XText [12], an EBNF-based language  used  to specify  grammars and  generate  an  associated  toolkit  containing  a  metamodel of the language, a  parser, and  a  basic  editor.  The  grammar defines the keywords  associated with the constructs presented in the PrefetchML metamodel.  Note  that OCLExpressions are parsed  as Strings, the model representation of the queries presented  in Figure  2 is computed  by  parsing  it using  the Eclipse  MDT  OCL  toolkit.

Listing 2: PrefetchML Language Grammar
grammar fr.inria.atlanmod.Prefetching
with org.eclipse.xtext.common.Terminals
import “http://www.inria.fr/atlanmod/Prefetching”PrefetchSpecification:
‘import’ nsURI=STRING
‘plan’ name=ID (default?=’default’)? ‘{‘
rules+=(StartingRule | AccessRule)*
(LRUCache{LRUCache} | MRUCache{MRUCache})
(properties=CacheProperties)? (‘when full remove ‘ tryFirstExp=OCLExpression)?
‘use cache’ ‘LRU’
‘use cache’ ‘MRU’
‘[‘ ‘size’size=INT (‘chunk’chunk=INT)? ‘]’
(StartingRule | AccessRule | DeleteRule | SetRule)
‘rule’ name=ID ‘:’ ‘on starting’
‘fetch’ targetPatternExp=OCLExpression
(‘remove ‘ ‘type’removeType=ClassifierExpression removePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘rule’ name=ID ‘:’ ‘on access’
‘type’sourceType=ClassifierExpression (sourcePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘fetch’ targetPatternExp=OCLExpression
(‘remove ‘ ‘type’removeType=ClassifierExpression removePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘rule’ name=ID ‘:’ ‘on delete’
‘type’sourceType=ClassifierExpression (sourcePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘fetch’ targetPatternExp=OCLExpression
(‘remove ‘ ‘type’removeType=ClassifierExpression removePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘rule’ name=ID ‘:’ ‘on set’
‘type’sourceType=ClassifierExpression (sourcePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
‘fetch’ targetPatternExp=OCLExpression
(‘remove ‘ ‘type’removeType=ClassifierExpression removePatternExp=OCLExpression)?
;OCLExpression: STRING ;ClassifierExpression: ID;


Listing  3 provides  an  example  of a PrefetchSpecification written in PrefetchML. To continue with our running example,  the listing displays  prefetching and  caching  rules  suitable for the queries  expressed  in the running example  (Listing 1).

The PrefetchSpecification imports the Java Metamodel  (line 1).  This  PrefetchSpecification contains a Plan  named  samplePlan  that uses a LRUCache that can  contain up  to  100 elements and  removes  them  by  chunks  of 10  (line  4).  It is also  composed  of three  PrefetchingRules :  the  first  one, r1 (5-6),  is a starting rule  that is executed  when  the plan is activated, and  loads  and  caches  all the Package   classes. The  rule  r2 (7-8)  is an  access  rule  that corresponds to  the prefetching and caching  actions  associated to the query  PrivateBodyDeclarations.  It is triggered when  a ClassDeclaration  is accessed,  and  loads  and  caches  all the BodyDeclarations  and  Modifiers  it contains.   The  rule  r3 (9-11)  corresponds  to the  query  ImportedComments : it is also triggered when  a  ClassDeclaration  is  accessed,   and  loads  the associated CompilationUnit, and  the  Comment contents  of its imported ClassDeclarations.  The  rule  also defines a remove expression, that removes  all the Package  elements from the cache when the load instruction is completed.

Listing 3: Sample Prefetching Plan
 1   import “http://www.example.org/Java”
3   plan samplePlan {
4      use cache LRU[size=100,chunk=10]
5      rule r1 : on starting fetch
6         Package.allInstances()
7      rule r2 : on access type ClassDeclaration fetch
8         self.bodyDeclarations.modifier
9      rule r3 : on access type ClassDeclaration fetch
10         self.compilationUnit.imports.compilationUnit.comments.content
11         remove type Package
12   }


PrefetchML Framework Infrastructure

In this Section we present the infrastructure of the PrefetchML framework and  its  integration in the modeling  ecosystem (details on its  integration on specific modeling  frameworks are provided in the next  section). We also detail how prefetching rules  are  handled and executed  using  the running example  presented in the  previous  Section.


Figure  3 shows the integration of the PrefetchML framework  in a typical modeling  framework infrastructure:  grey nodes represent standard model access components:  a model-based  tool accesses a model through a modeling  API,  which delegates to a persistence framework in charge  of handling the physical  storage of the model (for example  in XML files, or in a database).

In contrast, the PrefetchML framework (white  nodes)  receives events from the modeling framework. When the events trigger a prefetching rule,  it delegates the actual computation to  its  Model Connector.  This  component interacts with  the modeling  framework to retrieve the requested  object, typically by translating the OCL expressions  in the prefetching rules into lower level calls to the framework API. Section 5 discusses two specific implementations of this component.

The PrefetchML framework also intercepts model elements accesses,  in order  to search  first in its Cache component if the requested objects are already available. If the cache contains the  requested information, it is returned to the modeling  framework, bypassing the persistence framework and improving execution time.


PrefetchML Integration in MDE Ecosystem

Figure 3: PrefetchML Integration in MDE Ecosystem


PrefetchML Framework Infrastructure

Figure 4: PrefetchML Framework Infrastructure


Figure 4 describes the internal structure of the PrefetchML Framework. As explained in Section 3, a PrefetchML specification  conforms to the PrefetchML metamodel. This specification  imports also the metamodel/s for which we are building the prefetching plans.

The  Core component  of the  PrefetchML  framework is in charge  of loading,  parsing  and  storing  these  PrefetchML specifications  and  then use  them   to find  and  retrieve the prefetching / caching rules associated with an incoming event, and,  when  necessary, execute  them.   This  component  also contains the  internal  cache  that retains fetched  model  elements  in memory.  The  Rule Store is a data structure that stores  all the  object rules (access,  update, delete)  contained in  the input PrefetchML description.  The  Model Connector  component  is in charge  of the translation  and  the execution of OCLExpressions in the prefetching rules.  This connector can work at the  modeling  framework level, meaning  that it executes  fetch  queries  using  the  modeling  API itself, or at the database level, translating directly OCL expressions  into database queries.

The CacheAPI component gives access to the cache contents to client applications.  It allows  manual caching  and unloading operations, and  provides  configuration facilities. This  API  is an  abstraction layer  that unifies  access  to the different cache  types that can  be instantiated by  the  Core component.   Note  that in  our  architecture we  integrated prefetching and  caching  solutions in the  sense that the core component manages its own  cache,  where  only  prefetched elements are  stored.   While  this  may  result   in  keeping  in the cache objects that are not going to be recurrently used, using a LRU cache strategy allows the framework to get rid off them  when memory  is needed.  In addition, the grammar allows  to  define  a minimal  cache  that would  act only  as a storage  mechanism for the immediate prefetched objects.

The  EventAPI is the component that is in charge  of receiving  events from  the client application.   It provides  an API  to send access, delete,  and update events.  These  events are  defined  at the object level,  and  contain contextual information of their encapsulated model  element, such  as its identifier, the reference or attribute that is accessed,  and the index  of the accessed  element. These  informations are then used  by  the  Core  Component  to find the  rules  that match the event.

In particular, when an object event is sent to the PrefetchML framework (1),  the Event  API  handles  it and  forwards it  to  the Core  Component, which  is in charge  of triggering the associated  prefetching and  caching  rule.    To  do  that, the Core  Component  searches  in  the  Rule  Store  the rules that corresponds to the event and  the object that triggered it  (3).   Each  OCLExpression in the rules  is translated into fetch  queries  sent to the  Model Connector  (4),  which  is in charge  of the actual query  computation over the  model (5). Query  results   are  handled back  by  the PrefetchML Core, which  is in  charge  of caching  them  and  freeing  the cache from previously stored  objects.

As prefetching operations can  be expensive  to compute, the PrefetchML Framework runs  in  the background, and contains a pool of working  threads that performs  the fetch operations in parallel  of the application execution.  Model elements are cached asynchronously and available to the client application through the  CacheAPI. Prefetching queries  are automatically  aborted if they  take  too  much  time  and/or if their  results  are  not relevant  (according to  the  number of cache  hits)  in order  to  keep  the  PrefetchML Framework synchronized with  the client  application,  e.g.  preventing  it

from loading  elements that are not  needed  anymore.

The  PrefetchML framework infrastructure is not tailored to a particular data representation  and  can  be  plugged  in any kind of model persistence framework that stores  models conforming  to the Ecore  metamodel and  provides  an  API rich  enough   to  evaluate  OCL  queries.     This  includes   for example  EMF  storage   implementations such  as  XMI,  but also scalable  persistence layers built  on top of the EMF,  like NeoEMF  [13], CDO  [11], and  Morsa  [22].

Rule Processing

We  now look at the PrefetchML engine  from  a dynamic point of view.  Figure  5 presents the sequence  diagram associated with  the initialization of the PrefetchML framework. When  initializing, the prefetcher starts by loading  the PrefetchDescription to execute  (1).    To  do  so,  it iterates through  the  set  of plans  and  stores  the rules  in  the  RuleStore according  to their type (2).  In the example  provided in Listing  3 this  process  saves in the  store  the rules  r2 and r3, both  associated  with  the ClassDeclaration type.  Then, the framework creates the cache (3) instance corresponding to the active prefetching plan (or the default one if no active plan is provided). This creates the LRU cache of the example, setting its size to 100 and  its chunkSize to 10.

Next,  the PrefetchML framework iterates over the  StartingRules  of the description and computes their targetExpression  using  the Model  Connector (4).   Via  this  component, the OCL expression is evaluated (in the  example  the target expression   is  Package.allInstances())  and  the resulting elements are  returned to the Core  component (5)  that creates  the  associated identifying keys (6)  and  stores  them  in the cache (7).  Note  that starting rules are not stored  in the Rule  Store, because  they are  executed only  once when  the plan  is activated, and  are no longer  needed  afterwards.

Once this  initial  step  has been performed, the framework awaits  object events.  Figure  6 shows the  sequence  diagram presenting  how  the PrefetchML handles   incoming  events. When  an object event is received  (8), it is encapsulated into a working task which contains contextual information of the event (object accessed,  feature navigated, and  index  of the accessed  feature) and  asynchronously sent to the prefetcher (9) that searches  in the RuleStore the object rules that have the same type as the event (10).  In the example, if a ClassDeclaration element is accessed,  the prefetcher searches  associated  rules  and  returns r2 and  r3.   As for the diagram above,  the next  calls involve  the  execution of the target expressions  for the matched rules and  saving  the retrieved objects in  the  cache  for future calls.   Finally, the framework evaluates the  remove  OCL  expressions (17)  and  frees  the matching objects  from  the memory.    In  the example,   this last step removes  from  the  cache  all  the instances of the Package  type.


PrefetchML Initialization Sequence Diagram

Figure 5: PrefetchML Initialization Sequence Diagram


PrefetchML Event Handling Sequence Diagram

Figure 6: PrefetchML Event Handling Sequence Diagram


Tool Support

In this Section, we present the tool support for the PrefetchML framework. It is composed of two main components: a language editor  (Section 5.1) that supports the definition of prefetching and caching  rules,  and an execution engine with two different integration options:   the EMF API and the NeoEMF/Graph  persistence framework  (Sections   5.2  and 5.3).   The presented components are  part of a set of open source Eclipse plugins available at https://github.com/atlanmod/ Prefetching Caching  DSL.


Language Editor

The  PrefetchML language  editor  is an Eclipse-based editor that allows the creation and the definition of prefetching and  caching  rules.   It is partly generated from  the XText grammar presented in Section 3.3 and defines utility helpers to validate and  navigate the imported metamodel. The  editor  supports navigation auto-completion by inspecting imported metamodels, and visual validation of prefetching and caching  rules  by checking  reference  and  attribute existence. Figure  7 shows an example  of the PrefetchML editor  that contains the prefetching and caching plan defined in the running example  of Section 3.

PrefetchML Rule Editor

Figure 7: PrefetchML Rule Editor

EMF Integration

Figure  8 shows the integration of PrefetchML within the EMF   framework.  Note that only two components  must be adapted (light grey  boxes).   The rest  are either  generic PrefetchML components or standard EMF  modules.

In particular, dark grey boxes represent the standard EMF- based  model  access  architecture:  an  EMF-based  tool  accesses the model elements through the EMF  API,  that delegates the calls to the PersistenceFramework of choice (XMI, CDO, NeoEMF,…), which is finally responsible for the model storage.

The  two added/adapted components are:

  • An Interceptor that wraps the EMF API  and captures the calls (1)  to the EMF  API  (such  as eGet, eSet, or eUnset).   EMF  calls are  then transformed into  EventAPI  calls (2) by deriving  the appropriate event object from the EMF  API call.  For example, an eGet call will be translated into  the accessEvent method call (8)  in Figure  6.  Once  the event has  been  processed,  the Interceptor also searches  in the cache  the requested elements  as indicated by the Model Connector (3).  If they are  available in the cache,  they  are  directly returned to the  EMF-based tool.   Otherwise,  the  Interceptor passes on the control  to the  EMF  API  to continue the normal  process.
  • An EMF Model  Connector that  translates the  OCL expressions  in  the  prefetching and  caching  rules  into lower-level EMF API calls.  The results  of those queries are  stored  in  the  cache,  ready  for the  Interceptor to request them when necessary.

This  integration makes  event creation and  cache  accesses totally transparent to the client application. In addition, it does not make  any  assumptions about the  mechanism used to store  the  models,  and  therefore, it can be plugged  on top of any  EMF-based persistence solution.

Overview of EMF-Based Prefetcher

Figure 8: Overview of EMF-Based Prefetcher

NeoEMF/Graph Integration

To take advantage of the query facilities of graph databases (a proven  good alternative to store  large models)  and  make sure PrefetchML optimizes as much  as possible  the rule execution  time  in  this  context,  we  designed   a  Model  Connector dedicated to NeoEMF/Graph, a persistence solution that stores EMF  models  into  graph  databases.  Note that, PrefetchML can work with  NeoEMF without this dedicated support by  processing  calls  through the EMF  API  as  explained  in the previous  section.   Still, offering a native support allows for better optimizations.

NeoEMF/Graph  is  a  scalable  model  persistence  framework  built  on top of the  EMF  that aims  at handling large models  in  graph  databases  [3].  It relies  on  the Blueprints API [26], which aims to unify graph database accesses through a  common  interface.   Blueprints is the  basis  of a  stack  of tools that stores  and  serializes  graphs, and  provides  a powerful  query  language  called  Gremlin  [27].  NeoEMF/Graph relies on a lazy-loading  mechanism that allows the  manipulation of large  models  in a reduced  amount  of memory  by loading  only accessed  objects.

The  prefetcher implementation integrated in NeoEMF/Graph uses  the  same  mechanisms  as  the standard EMF one:  it defines an Interceptor that captures the calls to the EMF  API,  and  a  dedicated Graph   Connector.  While  the EMF  Connector computes loading  instructions at the EMF API  level,  the  Graph  Connector performs  a direct translation from  OCL  into  Gremlin, and  delegates the computation to the database, enabling  back-end optimizations such as uses of indexes,  or query  optimizers.  The  Graph  Connector caches  the  results  of the queries  (i.e.  database vertices ) instead of the EMF  objects, limiting  execution overhead implied  by object reifications. Since this implementation does not rely on the EMF API, it is able to evaluate queries significantly faster  than the  standard EMF  prefetcher (as  shown in our experimental results in Section 6), thus improving the throughput of the prefetching rule  computation.  Database vertices  are reified into EMF  objects when they are accessed from  the  cache,  limiting  the initial  execution overhead implied by unnecessary reifications.


In this Section,  we evaluate the performance of our PrefetchML Framework by  comparing the performance of executing a set  of OCL  queries  when  (i)  no  prefetching is used,  (ii)  EMF-based prefetching is active,  or (iii)  NeoEMF/Graph dedicated prefetching is active.   In all three cases, the back-end to store  the models  to be queried  is NeoEMF/Graph.   This  allows  to test all  three  combinations with the same  base  configuration.  To  have  a better overview  of the performance gains, each prefetching mechanism is tested on two different models  and  with  two cache  sizes.  We also repeat the process  using a good and  a bad  prefetching plan.

The latter aims to evaluate whether non-expert users choosing  a  wrong  prefetching plan  (e.g.    one  that for  instance prefetches objects that will never  be used since they are not involved  in any  of the  queries  / operations in the scenario) could harm tool efficiency a lot.  Each query is executed twice on each  combination to evaluate the benefit of the  cache  of PrefetchML in subsequent query  executions.

Note  that we do not compare  our  solution with  existing tools that can be related to our one because we could not envision a fair comparison scenario.  For  instance, Moogle [20] is a model search  approach that creates  an index to retrieve full  models  from  a  repository, where  our  solution aims  to improve  performances of queries  at the model  level.   Inc-Query  [4] is also not considered as a direct competitor because it does not provide  a prefetch mechanism. In addition, IncQuery was primarily designed  to execute  queries  against models  already in the memory  which  is a different scenario with  a different trade-off.

Experiments are executed on a computer running Fedora 20 64 bits.  Relevant hardware elements are:  an Intel Core I7 processor  (2.7 GHz),  16 GB  of DDR3  SDRAM  (1600 MHz) and  a SSD hard-disk. Experiments are executed on Eclipse 4.5.2  (Mars) running Java  SE  Runtime  Environment  1.7. To  run  our  queries,   we  set  the Java virtual machine   parameters -server and -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC that are recommended in the Neo4j documentation.

Benchmark Presentation

The  experiments are run  over two large models automatically constructed by the MoDisco [5] Java Discoverer, which is a reverse  engineering tool that computes low-level models from Java code.  The two models used in the experiments are the result of applying MoDisco discovery  tool over two Java projects:  the MoDisco  plugin  itself, and  the Java Development Tools  (JDT) core  plugin.    Resulting models  contain respectively 80 664 and  1 557 006 elements,  and  associated XMI files are respectively 20 MB and  420 MB large.

As sample  queries  on  those  models  to  use  in  the experiment we choose  three query  excerpts extracted from  real MoDisco software  modernization use-cases:

  • BlockStatement: To access all statements contained in a block
  • TypeToUnit: To access a type declaration and navigate to all its imports and comments
  • ClassToUnit: To extend the TypeToUnit query  by navigating the body and field declarations of the input class

The  first  query  performs   a  simple  reference  navigation from  the input Block  element  and  retrieves all  its  Statements.  The second query  navigates multiple references  from the input Type  element in order  to retrieve the Imports and Comments contained in its  CompilationUnit, and  the third query extends it by adding  filtering  using the select expression,  and  by  navigating the BodyDeclarations  of the input Class  element in order  to collect the  declared  variables and fields (details of the queries can be found on github.

Good  prefetching plans  have  been  created by  inspecting the navigation path of the queries.  The context type of each expression  constitutes the source  of AccessRules, and  navigations are  mapped to  target patterns.  Bad  plans  contain two types of prefetching and  caching  instructions:  the first ones have a source pattern that is never matched during  the execution (and  thus should  never be triggered), and the second ones are matched but loads and  caches objects that are not used in the query.

The  queries  have  been executed using two different cache configurations. The  first one is a large MRU cache that can contain up to 20% of the  input model (C1 ), and  the second is a  smaller  MRU  cache  that can  store  up  to  10%  of the input model (C2 ).  We choose this cache replacement policy according  to  Chou  and  DeWitt  [7] who  state MRU  is the best replacement algorithm when  a file is being  accessed  in a looping sequential reference  pattern. In addition, we compare  execution time  of the queries  when  they  are  executed for the  first time and  after  a warm-up execution to consider the impact of the cache on the performance.

Queries are evaluated over all the instances of the models that conform to the context  of the query.    In  order  to give  an  idea  of the  complexity  of the queries,  we  present in  Tables   1 and  2 the number of input elements for  each query  (#Input),  the number of traversed element  during the query  computation (#Traversed) and  the size of the result  set for each model (#Res).

Table 1: Experimental Set Details (MoDisco)
Query #Input #Traversed #Res
BlockStatement 1837 4688 2851
TypeToUnit 348 1895 1409
ClassToUnit 166 3393 2953


Table 2: Experimental Set Details (JDT)
Query #Input #Traversed #Res
BlockStatement 58484 199228 140744
TypeToUnit 1663 16387 13496
ClassToUnit 1347 48961 41925



Table  3 presents the  average  execution time (in  milliseconds) of 100 executions of the presented queries using Eclipse MDT  OCL  over  the  JDT and  MoDisco  models  stored  in the NeoEMF/Graph persistence framework.   Columns   are grouped  according to the kind  of prefetching that has been used.  For each group we show the time when using the good plan  with  first  cache  size,  the good  plan  with  the second cache size and  the  bad  plan  with the  first cache.

Each  cell shows the execution time  in milliseconds  of the query  the first  time  it  is  executed  (Cold  Execution).   In this  configuration  the  cache  is initially empty,  and  benefits of prefetching depend  only on the  accuracy of the plan  (to maximize  the cache hits)  and the complexity of the prefetching instructions (the more  complex  they are  the  more  time the background process has to advance on the prefetching of the next objects  to access).  The second result shows the execution time of a second execution of the query (Warmed Execution), when part of the  loaded  elements has been cached during  the first computation.

The correctness of query results   has been  validated by comparing the results of the different configurations  with the ones of the queries executed without any prefetching enabled.

Table 3 (1): Query Execution Time in Milliseconds (Cold Execution / Warmed Execution)
Model OCL Query No Pref. EMF Pref.
C1 (20%) C2 (10%) Inv






Table 3 (2): Query Execution Time in Milliseconds (Cold Execution / Warmed Execution)
Model OCL Query Graph Pref.
C1 (20%) C2 (10%) Inv







The main conclusions  we can draw from these results  (Table 3) are

  • EMF-based prefetcher improves the execution time of first time  computations  of queries  that perform  complex and multiple navigations for both JDT and MoDisco models (ClassToUnit query). However, when the query is simple  such  as BlockStatement or only contains  independent  navigations  such  as TypeToUnit, the EMF prefetcher results  in a small  execution overhead since the prefetch takes  time  to execute  and  with  simple queries  it cannot save time by fetching  elements in the background while the  query  is processed.
  • EMF-based prefetcher drastically improves the performance of the second execution of the query:  an important part of the navigated objects is contained in the cache,  limiting the database overhead.
  • NeoEMF-based prefetcher is faster than the EMF one on the first execution because  queries  can benefit from the database query  optimizations (such  as indexes),  to quickly  prefetch objects  to be used in the  query  when initial  parts of the  query  are  still  being  executed, i.e. the prefetcher is able to run  faster  than the  computed query.    This  increases  the  number of cache  hits in  a cold setup  (and  thus the execution time)
  • NeoEMF-based prefetcher is  slower  than the  EMF- based  one on later executions because  it stores  in the cache  the vertices  corresponding to the requested objects and  not the objects  themselves, therefore extra time is needed  to reify those objects  using  a low-level query  framework such as the Mogwa¨ı [10]
  • Wrong prefetcher plans are not dangerous. Prefetching does not add a significant execution time overhead and therefore results are in the same order of magnitude as when there  is no prefetching at all.
  • Too small caches  reduce  the benefits  of Prefetching since we waste  time checking for the existence  of many objects that due  to  the cache  size are  not there any longer  generating a lot of cache  misses.  Nevertheless, even with a small cache we improve  efficiency after  the initial  object load.

To summarize our results,  the PrefetchML framework is an interesting solution to improve execution time of model queries over  EMF  models.    The  gains  in  terms  of execution time  are  positive, but results  also show that the EMF prefetcher is not able to provide  first-time improvement for each  kind  of query,   and  additional information has  to be taken into account to provide  an optimal prefetching strategy, such  as the  reuse  of navigated elements inside  a query, or the size of the  cache.


Conclusions and Future Work

We  presented the PrefetchML DSL,  an  event-based  language that describes prefetching and caching rules over models. Prefetching rules are defined at the metamodel level and allow designers  to describe  the event conditions to activate the prefetch, the objects to prefetch, and  the  customization of the cache policy.  Since OCL is used to write  the rule conditions,  PrefetchML  definitions are independent  from  the underlying persistence backend and  storage  mechanism.

Rules  are  grouped   into plans  and  several  plans  can  be loaded/unloaded for the  same  model,  to  represent fetching and  caching  instructions specially  suited  for a given specific usage scenario.  Some automation/guidelines could be added to help on defining  a good plan  for a specific use-case  in order to make  the approach more  user-friendly. However,  our experiments have shown that even if users choose a bad plan the overhead is really  small.   The  execution framework has been  implemented on  top  of the EMF  as  well as  NeoEMF/Graph, and  results  of the experiments show a significant execution time  improvement  compared to non-prefetching use cases.

PrefetchML satisfies  all  the  requirements listed  in  Section 2.   Prefetching and  caching  rules  are  defined  using  a high-level  DSL embedding the  OCL,  hiding  the underlying database used to store  the model (1).  The  EMF  integration also  provides  a  generic  way  to  define  prefetching rules  for every  EMF-based persistence framework (2),  like NeoEMF and CDO. Note that an implementation tailored to NeoEMF is also provided to enhance  performance. Prefetching rules are  defined  at the metamodel level,  but the expressiveness of OCL  allows to refer to specific subset of model  elements if needed  (3).   In  Section  3 we presented  the grammar of the language, and emphasized that several  plans  can be created to optimize  different usage  scenario  (4).   Finally, the PrefetchML DSL is a readable language  that eases designers’ task on writing  and  updating their prefetching and  caching plan  (5).  Since the rules are defined at the metamodel level, created plans  do  not contain low-level  details that  would make  plan  definition and  maintenance difficult.

As  future work  we plan  to  work  on  the automatic generation  of PrefetchML scripts  based  on  static analysis   of available queries  and  transformations for the  metamodel we are trying to optimize. Another information source to come up  with  prefetching plans  is the dynamic discovery  of frequent  access  patterns at  the model  level  (e.g.    adapting process  mining  techniques).  This  is a second  direction we plan  to explore  since  it could  automatically enhance  existing applications working  on those models  even if we do not have access to their  source code and/or no prefetching plans have been created for them.  Adding  an adaptive behavior to PrefetchML may also allows to detect if a plan is relevant for a given  scenario,  and  switch-on/off  specific rules  according to the  context of the execution.


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